Healing Cancer Holistically

There are numerous holistic sources that claim to be healing cancer with varying degrees of success. A few of these report success greater than 90 percent of the time. I have spent years researching and finding the best information available, and have compiled a list of the most important considerations relevant to cancer. I present here a distillation of these factors, as well as a brief exploration of some approaches that would be more likely to fail so these can be avoided.

This article will cover four basic areas:

o How and Why the FDA has Failed Us.
o Holistic Options that Fall Short.
o Comprehensive Holistic Treatments.
o A Note on Allopathic Cancer Treatments.

How and Why the FDA has Failed Us

If cancer can be treated so effectively using holistic means, then why isn’t the allopathic medical establishment using such methods and showing greater success?

As many of us know, the EPA and the FDA have failed us when it comes to cancer. It’s no wonder that one out of three people are expected to get cancer some time in their lifetimes. Such an outrageous statistic is only possibly due to gross levels of corruption in our government.

It is now common practice for pharmaceutical industry executives to gain top posts in the FDA where they are then able to make critical decisions affecting the industry that they are charged with regulating. Then, a couple years down the road, they are offered high-paying positions back in the same industry that they just helped through their post at FDA. The implications of this blatant conflict of interest are obvious. One example of many is that of Michael Taylor who had been a Monsanto attorney before going to work for the FDA. During his time at FDA, he contributed to creating a new FDA policy that deemed genetically modified foods as “generally regarded as safe”, or GRAS. He also wrote the policy exempting biotech foods from labeling. Following his time at FDA, he went back to work for Monsanto – no doubt in a very lucrative position. Searching Google on “FDA revolving door” (without the quotes) turns up 28,900 results.

Consider: We know that money corrupts and that people will do outrageous things for money and power. These things go without saying. With all their science and research:

o Why don’t doctors tell their patients about how cancer loves an acid environment and cannot survive in an alkaline environment? Why don’t doctors tell patients to stay away from acid-producing foods and focus on alkali-producing foods? Why not give people lists of these foods?

o With all of the science and research, why don’t they tell people that cancer loves sugar?

o Why don’t they tell people that cancer thrives in oxygen-deprived cells? Why don’t their protocols work more with oxygenating the cells and blood?

o Why don’t they tell you which vitamins and supplements inhibit cancerous growth?
Just imagine, for a moment, if a cure was found. Imagine the possibility that there are currently very effective holistic treatments. If they came into wide usage, imagine:

o All the research grants that would go out the window.

o Think about all the expensive diagnostic and treatment equipment in doctor’s offices and hospitals that would be rendered useless.

o The loss of revenue to doctors and researchers who use such equipment, and the
manufacturers and sales people who sell them.

o The many expensive surgeries that would end.

o The sales of many life-long prescription pharmaceutical drugs would end.
How much money are we talking about? Treatment for one person will typically cost between $80,000 to $160,000. The medical industry represents one-seventh of the total United States Gross National Product at one trillion dollars per year with revenues associated with cancer reaching $400 billion annually. Is it any wonder that holistic options are off the table? The cancer industry cannot make a dime off of broccoli and carrots and vitamins and healthy people. A healthy person is lost profit.

“But nobody today can say that one does not know what cancer and its prime cause be. On the contrary, there is no disease whose prime cause is better known, so that today ignorance is no longer an excuse that one cannot do more about prevention.”

– Nobel Prize Winner Otto Warburg in a meeting of Nobel Laureates, June 30, 1966

Holistic Options That Fall Short

There have been a number of books that suggest that the cure for cancer is one key factor, such as using specific nutritional supplements effective against cancer or an herbal cure for cancer. Using only herbs to cure cancer may not be the right answer for the same reason that I would not limit my own treatment to a single homeopathic option. The reason is simple. Alternative cancer remedies typically only give you part of the picture and fail to address the underlying causes of cancer.

Regardless of whether one is talking about stage three breast cancer, lung cancer, or prostate cancer, an herbal remedy or a homeopathic cure for cancer may do precious little to shift the pH (i.e. the alkalinity) of the body, and precious little to eliminate the toxins accumulated in the body that gave rise to the cancer in the first place. Further, if you kill the cancer cells, but you are still eating a diet consisting primarily of acid-producing foods, and you do not cleanse the body of accumulated toxins, then your cancer is likely to come back again.

Comprehensive Holistic Treatments

To be most successful, any cancer remedy must address the underlying causes of cancer. Holistic Cancer Cures can be highly successful – given that one follows a protocol with a proven track record of success.

There are a wide array of factors that support or promote cancer that should be avoided. Nothing here should be ignored. A few are obvious, but several are unknown by most people. Knowledge is indeed power. So read this with an open mind and get ready to reclaim your health.

The best holistic cancer treatments should include three primary and essential considerations:

1) Cancer thrives in an acid environment in the body and for the most part cannot survive in an alkalized body. So an alternative treatment for cancer must inform you fully on acid-producing foods and alkaline producing foods so the pH of the body can be shifted away from acid and toward a healthy alkaline state. And this is easy to do because there are many lists of acid versus alkaline producing foods to be found on the internet.

But again, that’s only part of the story. Consider – if the body is full of toxins – many of which are acid-based, then it may not be possible to alkalize the body sufficiently without also addressing the next two steps:

2) Any holistic cancer treatment worth its salt will inform you of the many sources of toxins in our food and water, and how to best avoid them. And this brings us to the third element of your journey to healing cancer.

3) Treating cancer must address how to cleanse the body through use of a variety of detoxification products to eliminate accumulated toxins.

So again, natural cures for cancer are incomplete without these three elements. But with them, it can truly be said that healing cancer with a holistic approach is typically successful. This includes even advanced cancers, depending on, for instance, the degree of damage to vital organs and the person’s age.

On my website, I offer a document that provides details on the above three factors, as well as:

o A link to the best cancer diet to follow, which will, for example, discuss foods that are high in fungus and molds, foods that are genetically modified, which cooking oils to use, and much more.

o A list of supplements that are effective against cancer.

o A link to the best alternative cancer treatment website where you’ll find well more than 200 specific alternative cancer protocols that have a proven track record against many, many forms of cancer. This website will give you detailed information on things like contraindications, other relevant safety information, and much more.

o Details on approximately twenty of the most common and impactful sources of toxins in our society, as well as specific research and links for each to help you understand why you need to stay clear of them. Toxins can come from unexpected sources. Examples include non-stick cookware such as Teflon; plastics in touch with foods and drinks; microwave ovens, which transform foods in dangerous ways; municipal water which typically contains chlorine and fluorosilic acid – a highly toxic industrial waste product passed off as fluoride to help children’s teeth; genetically modified foods; common artificial sweeteners that turn into formaldehyde in the body; MSG, which is now in abundant supply in fast foods and hidden by using more than 15 different names; and even plastic shower curtains which outgas a huge amount of toxins.

o Information on the best products and means that I’ve been able to find over the years to help you limit your exposure to these dangers.

A Note on Allopathic Cancer Treatments

People would do well to remember what the cancer establishment refers to as ‘terminal’. In my opinion it typically means that in their paradigm, they have no good answers for you. This document, with its sources, has much better answers – ones that won’t bankrupt you.

The FDA likes to restrict the use of the words “cure” and “heal”. Now, if what is happening is that people’s cancers are going away and these patients are finding health and vitality – then perhaps to call it anything other than a healing would be inaccurate. Cancer patients are using holistic approaches and finding health. That’s a reality. The sources sighted in the document available for download on my website speak for themselves.

I speak to you as one person to another. It’s up to you to look at the evidence here and on my website as well as that presented by your doctor to make up your own mind for what is right for you. This is your opportunity to take responsibility for your own health.

I am convinced that the holistic approach is much more effective than the toxins of chemotherapy, radiation, pharmaceuticals, and toxic and acidic food being promoted by the mainstream allopathic path. It is my understanding that the holistic path, using specific protocols, achieves healings above 90 percent where the allopathic world knows something closer to 30 percent. That’s a guess, for now. So if you want one-third the chance of healing and a path that bankrupts you and leaves you sicker by the month – go allopathic. If you want three times those odds and a path that strengthens you each step of the way, then go with this document. One other important consideration – the allopathic path does nothing to address the underlying causes of cancer in the first place. As a result – if you continue eating the same foods and exposing yourself to the same toxins, your cancer is likely to come back again a few years down the road.

DISCLAIMER – The information in this article is provided for educational and informational purposes only. These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. The author is not a doctor and is not attempting to recommend, prescribe, treat, cure, mitigate, or prevent any disease and in no way is the information contained in this document intended to be a substitute for a health care provider’s consultation. The content is based upon research by the author. The reader is encouraged to make their own health care decisions that can be based upon their own research and then partnering with their own health care professional. If you are ill please consult a qualified physician or appropriate health care provider.

The best to you on your journey to healing,
Cole Simonson

Foods that Help Prevent Cancer

The risk of developing cancer has become one of the most thought provoking issues of our time. Worldwide statistics show that as many as 10.9 million people are diagnosed with some form of cancer every year. As research into the food we eat becomes more complex and innovative, it reveals that there are numerous ‘super foods’ which not only fight cancer cells, but can also help to prevent it from ever occurring.

What is Cancer?

All living things are comprised of a variety of cells, such as kidney cells, brain cells and skin cells. Cancer develops when a particular cell mutates, then begins to grow and divide. Eventually, these cells form a mass called a malignant tumor, which often starts to invade surrounding tissue and organs.

Super Foods

It is thought that up to one third of cancer related deaths could be diet related.
Many of the foods we eat today can in fact be harmful to the cells in our bodies, particularly ‘fast food’, which often contains high rates of saturated fat.

A large European study has recently shown that ‘junk food’ may in fact be a major cause of cancer of the pancreas, the urinary tract and of the womb, which makes saturated fat especially dangerous for women. There is however, an abundance of super foods that contain cancer fighting anti-oxidants and enzymes. These foods fall into a number of categories and it is best to look at their properties separately.

Fruit and Vegetables

  • Raw carrots are rich in beta carotene and substances called falcarinol and polyacethylens, which can help to impede a wide variety of cancer including, breast, stomach, throat, lung, prostate, bladder and intestinal
  • Sweet potatoes are thought to have a number of cancer fighting properties including carotenoids (beta carotene is one form)
  • Turnips and their leaves contain a substance called glucose molaes, which is said to attack cancer cells
  • Broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, kale and sprouts are rich in the anti-oxidants; lutein and zeaxanthin which are thought to be particularly affective at inhibiting breast and prostate cancer
  • Broccoli and sprouts also contain a substance called phytochemical sulforaphane, which is a by-product of glucoraphanin and is especially useful at impeding bowel cancer
  • Kale is thought to retain indoles, which are nitrogen compounds and are said to prevent lesions in estrogen sensitive areas, such as the ovaries, mutating into cancerous cells
  • Beetroot is full of anti-oxidants that specifically attack lung cancer cells
  • Tomatoes carry vitamin C and a carotenoid called lycopene that fights oxygen molecules which are also known as ‘free radicals’. Free radicals are often believed to trigger cancer cells. Lycopene is notable in its ability to aid the fight against rectal and colon cancer, as well as prostate, breast, mouth and cancer of the pancreas. Cooked and canned/pureed tomatoes are said to be especially concentrated in lycopene
  • Soya bean products such as tofu include phytoestrogens and isoflavones, which when absorbed in sensible amounts (no more than four or five ounces per day) are thought to block and help prevent cancer cells from forming and are particularly associated with lowering the risk of breast cancer. Incidences of breast cancer are significantly lower in Asian countries where soy products are consumed regularly. However, caution must be exercised, as research suggests that eating too much soy may cause hormone imbalances which can in fact stimulate cancer cells
  • Avocados have prolific amounts of an anti-oxidant called glutathione. Glutathione attacks free radicals and stops the absorption of certain saturated fats into the intestine. Avocados contain high levels of beta-carotene and potassium, which is also very beneficial for the heart
  • Citrus fruits, such as oranges, grapefruits, lemons and limes possess high amounts of vitamin C, folic acid and monoterpenes, which can help to eliminate carcinogens from the body and are believed to repress cancer cells
  • Papayas carry prolific amounts of vitamin C and folic acid, which are both highly effective anti-cancer components
  • Figs contain a form of benzaldehyde, which is renowned for its ability to shrink tumors
  • Grapes, particularly the red varieties, include resveratrol and ellagic acid which combine to block the enzymes that are responsible for the growth of cancer cells. They also contain strong anti-oxidants called bioflavonoids
  • Strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, blueberries and other berries that are red or black in color consist of a wide variety of antioxidants, vitamins and minerals, and plant compounds that are thought to be very beneficial against many forms of cancer

Herbs and Spices

  • Rosemary is said to have detoxifying properties and can repress the advancement of tumors. Laboratory tests have revealed that it is principally effective against breast and skin tumors
  • Tumeric belongs to the ginger family and it is thought to help reduce the inflammation that is connected to stomach, bowel and colon cancer
  • Root ginger has been used by Chinese medics for centuries and is well regarded for its many healing benefits. It can be used as a spice in savoury and sweet dishes and as a herbal tea
  • Garlic is well renowned for its blood thinning and anti-bacterial properties. It can also help to eliminate oxidants that cause cancer, such as carcinogens and free radicals. Eating raw or cooked garlic has been found to be far more effective than taking garlic supplements
  • Licorice root contains a chemical called glycyrrhizin which is considered to help block the growth of prostate cancer cells, though an excessive consumption of licorice can lead to raised blood pressure
  • Chilli peppers are rich in a substance called capsaicin that is regarded to be a preventative against intestinal cancer

Beverages

  • Black, green and white teas retain antioxidants which are also known as polyphenols. These antioxidants are considered to expressly defend against cancer cells and stop them from dividing and spreading. White and green tea is regarded as being particularly efficient against lung, colon, rectal and stomach cancer as well as cancer of the liver and pancreas
  • Red wine also contains polyphenols and a substance called resveratrol which has been discovered to be present in grape skin. These antioxidants are known to counter free radicals. It is thought that the pinot noir grape variety contains the largest amounts of resveratrol, particularly in wines where the grapes are grown in cooler, rainy climates, such as Chile in South America. However, alcohol is consumed in large amounts it can actually be a cause of cancer, so it is best drink no more than one glass of red wine per day.

There are many other foods that are considered to be wonderful cancer preventatives. Seaweed and sea vegetables contain fiber, proteins, beta-carotene, folic acid, and a fatty acid called chlorophylone.

These forms of vegetable are said to help prevent breast cancer. Nuts and seeds are naturally high in omega-3 fatty acid, which is essential for brain function. Nuts also contain a mineral called selenium and are rich in antioxidants such as quercetin and campferol. Nuts and seeds are regarded as primarily effective at repelling prostate and colon cancer cells, as well as being a natural preventative against the threat of heart disease. Mushrooms have prolific amounts of potent compounds called polysaccharides. These compounds are thought to build up immunity against cancer cells. Certain varieties of mushroom are perceived to be particularly efficient, these include; reishi, shiitake and maitake, and are widely used in Japanese cuisine.

The benefits of eating a healthy, balanced diet have become more apparent as research into cancer and other fatal diseases evolve.

A diet rich in vegetables, fruit and lean meat is much more of a priority in our daily lives than it was twenty years ago and medical advice suggests that eating at least five portions of fruit or vegetables per day can significantly lower the risk of many forms of cancer and heart disease, as well as preventing obesity. The threat of obesity is a volatile issue and for the first time in many years the life expectancy of our children is thought to be lower than our own, which is an extremely worrying statistic.

We are bombarded with these frightening medical statistics on a regular basis. Yet the most sensible advice we have been given in recent years is to eat at least five portions of fruit or vegetables per day. Taking action now may well lessen our chances of developing cancer and should help to provide numerous other health benefits for many years to come.

Breast Cancer The Cure

You have my permission to publish this article electronically or in print, free of charge, as long as the bylines are included. A courtesy copy of your publication would be appreciated.

Breast Cancer The Cure

There is no known cure for breast cancer. More than 1.5 million people will be diagnosed with breast cancer this year worldwide. Scientists don’t know why most women get breast cancer, yet breast cancer is the most frequent tumor found in women the world over. A woman who dies of breast cancer is robbed of an average of nearly 20 years of her life. Breast cancer knows no social boundaries. It’s a disease that can affect anyone. Some prominent women who’s lives that have been touched by breast cancer include Jill Eikenberry actress age 52; Peggy Fleming age 49 figure skater; Kate Jackson age 50 (Charlies Angels); Olivia Newton-John age 50 actress singer; Nancy Reagan age 77 former first lady; Melissa Etheridge age 43 singer; and the beautiful Suzanne Summers actress. These high rates of breast cancer are not acceptable to the women of the world and must be met with scientific research that provides results.

Despite over a decade of research, and more than $1.7 billion spent, hundereds of women worldwide are dying from breast cancer every day. Yet doctors don’t know how breast cancer starts or how to cure it. Doctors are still approaching treatment for breast cancer in the same old fashioned ways: surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Barbarick treatments…And scientists keep doing the same old redundant research that’s simply not working. It doesn’t have to be that way. Gen Cells Cures is a scientific biotechnology company that is focused on a cure for breast cancer. The company is dedicated to curing breast cancer before it’s too late for you. We’re not interested in a cure in five, ten, or twenty years from now. We want your cure for breast cancer within a year or two. We don’t want you to have to under go surgery, radiation, chemotherapy or take toxic drugs.

Why Gen Cells Cures? You can search the medical journals; you can search the internet until your blue in the face. You will find the same old news which is no new news about breast cancer research and treatments. Breast cancer research is locked up in a black whole. Gen Cells Cures is approaching the cure for breast cancer from different angles and using tomorrow’s scientific technologies today. Our expertise is in stem cell research and genomics. Malfunctioning stem cells have already been linked to the development of breast cancer. We’re not talking about using generic stem cells from an egg and sperm cell. There is no genetic match for you with the politically controversial generic stem cells that are always in the news. The isolation of cancer stem cells, coupled with our understanding of genetic mutations causing cancer, and our knowledge of genomics will result in ways to eliminate cancer cells while sparing normal breast tissues.

Genetics and Breast Cancer

People will tell you to accept what you can’t change…Your genetics, your genes, the genes your mother and father handed you when you were born that came with their particular genetic make-up. Most inherited cases of breast cancer have been associated with two genes: BRCA1 and BRCA2. The past five years has been a period of unparalleled discovery in the field of genetics, genomics, and stem cell research, but these discoveries are not being applied to breast cancer treatments. A job that Gen Cells Cures definitely wants to get our hands dirty in. Recently researchers have found that by blocking a gene called beta1-integrin the growth of tumor cells can be stopped. When this gene was removed the tumor cells quit growing. You don’t have to accept the genes that you were given at birth. Gen Cells Cures will be able to manipulate your genes to cure your breast cancer.

Our Cancer Stem Cell and Genomics Program will bring together the top scientific minds in the world under one tin roof to maximize the use of diverse approaches to the understanding of cancer genomics fused with stem cell solutions. Gen Cells Cures isn’t looking for a multi-million dollar biomedical research center like the Stowers Institute in Kansas City, which is a medical center to be admired. A rented tin shack will do just fine. Of course, we would accept hand-me down michroscopes from the Stoweres (billionaires who bought their own multi-million dollar biomedical research center) if they would be gracious enough to grant them to us or we would accept a small prime the pump check to move forward with our research. The Stowerses and all the scientists from the Stowers Institute have an open invitation to visit our lab in the Caribbean. What we are looking for is a cure for breast cancer to stop the humiliation, pain and suffering this menace to society causes millions of women and thousands of men worldwide, and not a new biomedical center… Every dollar invested with us goes into pure medical research and equipment. The same offer goes out to all the millionaires and especially the billionaires of the world. People that come to mind are: Paul Allen, Bill and Melinda Gates, Jon Huntsman, William and Alice Goodman, Ann Lurie, Jamie and Karen Moyer, Harold C. Simmons, Alfred Mann, Sumner M. Redstone, Michael Milton and the Palm beach billionaires, there are simply too many to mention. The combined wealth of the three Microsoft billionaires alone is more than ten times the amount spent by the U.S. Federal Government on research to fight cancer and other deadly diseases. We know we’re in the wrong business to become billionaires ourselves. This kind of biotechnology has never produced even one billionaire. It’s the cure for breast cancer that we want.

Simply put the cancer research organizations are funding the wrong researchers. It’s time to go outside the normal research channels. Do something different. The same story year after year after year and no cure. These unmotivated researchers just aren’t getting results. Let someone else have a shot at it. It’s time to try something new and different. A different approach. There are races for the cure, golf tournaments for the cure, there are walks for the cure, there are foundations for the cure. These foundations have been funding the same ineffective research for more than twenty years now. These foundations have been betting on the wrong horse. Joining the crusade won’t help if the research being done doesn’t take on a twenty-first century scientific approach. It’s been time to move forward scientifically for five years now. But today’s breast cancer researchers are stuck in a twentieth century mind-set. The Excuse is someday we’ll find the cure, but someday doesn’t help today’s victims of breast cancer. We need top notch scientific action today.

The genetics are out of the bottle and stem cell research is moving forward whether the U.S. government likes it or not. Gen Cells Cures has moved off-shore to the Caribbean to avoid the political controversy over stem cell research. I am sure you won’t mind a walk on the beach with me to talk about your cure for your breast cancer. Once we have the cure we can take the cure from the bench to the patient without a long and costly wait for FDA approval. There are many advantages to not having big brother breathing down your neck. The governments of the United States and Western countries have nothing to offer except road blocks, red tape and detours. Our patients don’t have time for political smoke and mirrors. With a little luck we could have your cure before the time comes that you need that dreaded surgery and chemo.

Our gifted world-class researchers are visionary and have been schooled in winning and have courage, creativity, can-do attitudes, burning desires, unfaltering belief and an obsession that they will be there first. By first we mean years ahead of the other biotechnology companies. Like determined, fighting NASCAR drivers our scientists are living to take the chequered flag of biotech and win the coveted race for the cure for breast cancer.

Focused on breakthrough discoveries, Gen Cells Cures nurtures a culture that encourages high standards of excellence, original thinking, hard work and a willingness to take risks. Our world-renowned scientists believe in themselves and its belief that gets us there. The company will seek to develop a work environment that is results focused and team-orientated. We compete against time. Though we compete intensely we maintain high ethical standards and trust and respect for each other. Quality is the cornerstone of all our activities. We seek the highest quality information, decisions and people. Our success depends on superior scientific innovation. We see the scientific method as a multi-step process which includes designing the right experiment, collecting and analyzing data and rational decision making. It is not subjective or emotional but rather a logical, open and rational process.

Our success comes from one simple fact; we are committed to being a science-based, patient-driven company, driven by that one special breast cancer patient…you.

Gen Cells Cures lost most of our one million dollar start-up money in offshore bank scandal and currency devaluation last year. We are now actively pursuing financial support. Unfortunately, the Gen Cells Cures team is made up of great scientific minds and not great marketers, salesmen, or fund raisers. Yes, we are looking for a millionaire or billionaire without a cause to support our work, but if you are not our wealthy saviour, we welcome any help, be it financial or a donation of your time. The scientific team is on stand-by. What we’re lacking is the funding to go forward. We could use motivated salesmen to sell our research, fund raisers, skilled internet marketers or someone just to pass out flyers or mail out promotional material. We could use help from the media with publicity stories, ads and promotions to get the word out. We are particularly interested in looking for assistance from the billionaires of the world; there are approximately 600 in the world. Billionaires like Sergey Brin and Larry Page (Google billionaires), Rupert Murdoch, Ted Turner, and Oprah Winfrey and others who control the media could get our life-saving message to the world fast. We are also hoping that some of my celebrities friends will come forward and spread their wings to help support our breast cancer research: Steven Seagal, Charlie Sheen, Wesley Snipes, Danny Glover, Erik Estrada, Tom Arnold, Dolph Lundgren, Roger Clinton, Bill Clinton, Usher, Hulk Hogan, Ivana Trump, John Secada, Sylvester Stalone, Arnold Schwarzenegger, Mike Reno, Richard Branson, Cindy Crawford, Cher, Demi Moore, Michelle Pfeiffer, and other stars that I have had the good fortune of meeting in person and others celebrities that I hope to meet in the future. (Photos of Gerald and the stars can be viewed at his promotional group listed below.) I am waiting to get my photo with Suzanne Summers!

Gen Cells Cure offers more than hope. We can do the job. If you’re going to eradicate cancer you have to have the right people doing the right research. One thing is for sure. We couldn’t do any worse than what the scientists before us have done. Which is virtually nothing! Help us alleviate the pain and suffering. Together, with your help, we can cure breast cancer.

Article by Gerald Armstrong- [email protected]
Gerald is the owner of Gen Cells Cures
Visit his group for information about “The Cure” for incurable diseases and aging.

Group address [http://www.msnusers.com/cures]

What Is Cancer And How Can I Prevent It

Cancer is An abnormal growth of cells which tend to proliferate in an uncontrolled way and, in some cases, to metastasize (spread).

Cancer is not one disease. It is a group of more than 100 different and distinctive diseases.

Cancer can involve any tissue of the body and have many different forms in each body area. Most cancers are named for the type of cell or organ in which they start. If a cancer spreads (metastasizes), the new tumor bears the same name as the original (primary) tumor.

The frequency of a particular cancer may depend on gender. While skin cancer is the most common type of malignancy for both men and women, the second most common type in men is prostate cancer and in women, breast cancer.

Cancer frequency does not equate to cancer mortality. Skin cancers are often curable. Lung cancer is the leading cause of death from cancer for both men and women in the world today.

Benign tumors are NOT cancer; malignant tumors are cancer. Cancer is NOT contagious.

Cancer is the Latin word for crab. The ancients used the word to mean a malignancy, doubtless because of the crab-like tenacity a malignant tumor sometimes seems to show in grasping the tissues it invades. Cancer may also be called malignancy, a malignant tumor, or a neoplasm (literally, a new growth).

ORIGIN OF CANCER

All cancers begin in cells, the body’s basic unit of life. To understand cancer, it’s helpful to know what happens when normal cells become cancer cells.

The body is made up of many types of cells. These cells grow and divide in a controlled way to produce more cells as they are needed to keep the body healthy. When cells become old or damaged, they die and are replaced with new cells.

But sometimes this orderly process goes wrong. The genetic material (DNA) of a cell can become damaged or changed, producing mutations that affect normal cell growth and division. When this happens, cells do not die when they should and new cells form when the body does not need them. The extra cells may form a mass of tissue called a tumor.

COMMON TYPES OF CANCER

A. Bone Cancer

B. Brain Cancer

C. Breast Cancer

D. Endocrine Cancer

E. Gastrointestinal Cancer

F. Gynecologic Cancer

G. Head & Neck Cancer

H. Leukemia

I. Lung Cancer

J. Lymphoma

K. Multiple Myeloma

L. Prostate Cancer

M. Skin Cancer

N. Soft Tissue Sarcoma

CAUSES OF CANCER

some causes of cancer, such as smoking, can be controlled. Others, like a person’s age or family history, can’t be changed.

Causes

Scientists have found many factors that make a person more likely to get hepatocellular liver cancer.

1.Gender

Men are more likely to get liver cancer than are women. This could be because of the behaviors listed below, such as smoking and alcohol abuse.

There are also some inherited liver diseases that increase the risk of liver cancer.

2. Cirrhosis

Cirrhosis (suh-row-sis) is a disease in which liver cells are damaged and replaced with scar tissue. This can often lead to cancer. In this country, the major causes of liver cirrhosis are alcohol abuse and hepatitis B and C. Another cause is a disease that results in too much iron in the liver.

3. Diabetes

Diabetes can increase the risk of liver cancer. This is more common in diabetics who have other risk factors such as heavy drinking or viral hepatitis.

4. Obesity

Obesity might increase the risk of getting liver cancer.

5. Aflatoxins

These cancer-causing substances are made by a fungus that can contaminate peanuts, wheat, soybeans, groundnuts, corn, and rice. Long-term exposure to aflatoxins can increase the risk of liver cancer. In the United States and Europe, these foods are tested for aflatoxins.

6. Vinyl Chloride and Thorium Dioxide (Thorotrast)

These chemicals are risk factors for several types of liver cancer. They have become much less important since Thorotrast is no longer used and exposure to vinyl chloride is strictly controlled.

7. Anabolic Steroids

These male hormones are used by some athletes to increase their strength. Long-term use of these can slightly increase the risk of liver cancer.

8. Arsenic

In some parts of the world, drinking water contaminated with arsenic increases the risk of liver cancer. This is a concern in some areas of the United States.

Less Certain Risk Factors for Liver Cancer

Birth Control Pills

Birth control pills may slightly increase the risk of liver cancer. Most of the studies linking birth control pills and cancer involve types of pills that are no longer used. Birth control pills are now made in a different way, and it is not known if they increase liver cancer risk.
Tobacco

Some studies have found a link between smoking and liver cancer, but the extent of this is not known.

CANCER SYSTOMS TO NOTE

Local Symptoms

Unusual Lumps

Swelling

Hemorrhage/Bleeding

Pain

Ulcers

Jaundice

Systemic Systoms

Weight Loss

Poor Appetite

Fatigue

Cachexia (Loss of weight, muscle atrophy, fatigue, weakness, and significant loss of appetite)

Excessive Sweating

Night Sweats

Anemia

Thrombosis

Hormonal Changes

HOW TO PREVENT CANCER

Food: Eat organic produce, especially fruits whose peels are eaten, and avoid red meat. Eat low on the food chain, choosing more fresh produce and grains and less meat.

Cleaning products: Look under the kitchen sink, and avoid using anything that carries a skull and crossbones. Buy baking soda and vinegar instead – they’re just as good.

Cellphones: Limit your calls as much as possible, to lower direct microwave penetration to your brain.

Non-stick cookware and stain repellents: Throw out any old, cracked non-stick pans, since the chemical, PFOA, used to make the non-stick coating has been linked to cancer. It is also presernt in stain-resistant clothing, and waterproof fabrics. Rain-proof gear is OK,, but not next to the skin.

Personal care items: Avoid anything that contains parabens – butylparaben, methylparaben – which in some studies have shown estrogenic activity, and which have also been found in human breast tumours. “We have to create political change so young mothers and fathers don’t need to be chemists to decide on a shampoo for their baby.” – Devra Davis.

Prevention is the best single opportunity we have to stop the cancer epidemic in The world.I invite you to join Me now!

Who Else Wants to Learn About Ovarian Cancer

It is a frightening fact that somewhere around 1.5 percent of all women will develop ovarian cancer during their life. Although it is not as common as breast cancer, it is still considered to be the most serious and potentially fatal of  all of the gynecological cancers. Unfortunately this type of cancer is usually in advanced stages before it is diagnosed and this makes treatment difficult. Since the ovaries are not easily examined and the warning signs are not clear, it is common for a late diagnosis. Because there is a lack of screening tests, it is essential to be familiar with the early symptoms and understand the possible risk factors.

The ovaries are a part of the female reproductive system and they are located on each side of the uterus. The ovaries produce the hormones estrogen and progesterone. There are two types of tumors that can affect the ovaries, benign or malignant. If the tumor is benign, it is not non-cancerous or non-malignant and therefore, it does not spread to any other parts of the body. A cancerous or malignant tumor will often spread (metastasizes), creating secondary cancerous tumors.

Ovarian cancer is definitely malignant and can occur in one or both of the ovaries.

Epithelial ovarian cancer mainly affects postmenopausal women and grows in the surface of the ovary. It is the most common type of ovarian cancer, accounting for around 90 percent of the ovarian cancers. A borderline tumor is another kind of epithelial tumor. It grows much slower than its regular counterpart. These can normally be surgically removed, even if there are diagnosed at an advanced stage. Germ cell is a very rare form of ovarian cancer. It begins in the cells that develop into eggs. Sex-chord stromal cell ovarian cancer affects the ovary cells that are responsible for female hormones.

The actual cause of ovarian cancer is not known but there are certain risk factors that research has identified. Although by actually having any of these risk factors may increase your chances of ovarian cancer, it does not guarantee that you will get the disease. By having knowledge of these risk factors, it can prove helpful. If you are the slightest bit concerned that you may have any of the risk factors, it is imperative to see your doctor.

Some of the common risk factors of ovarian cancer include:

-Most ovarian cancers affect women over 40.
-Caucasian women have higher rates.
-Women who have never been pregnant have a higher risk of ovarian cancer.

If you have any family history of any breast, endometrial, colon cancer or ovarian cancer, you may have a higher risk of getting ovarian cancer. Women who have had fertility drugs may be at a higher risk although infertility itself is a risk factor so this cannot be taken as a clear indication. The use of estrogen only HRT (post hysterectomy) has been identified as a possible risk factor for ovarian cancer, particularly if you have been on this therapy for over ten years. Obesity is a risk factor associated with ovarian cancer, as is a diet that is high in fat.

Can the Risks of ovarian cancer be Reduced?

Unfortunately, at the present time, no known procedures exist to prevent or detect early ovarian cancer but there are ways to reduce the risks. Research has found that using oral contraceptives can cut the risk of ovarian cancer if taken for a period of five years during your life. Breastfeeding delays ovulation after childbirth and therefore decreases your risk of ovarian cancer. A high fat diet has been identified as a risk factor in ovarian cancer. Tubal ligation or hysterectomy both reduces the risk of ovarian cancer. People with a strong family history of ovarian cancer may opt to speak to a genetic counselor. You may be referred to a gynecological oncologist to consider ways to reduce your risk.

There are no screening tests currently available for ovarian cancer; it is recommended that you have a regular pelvic and vaginal exam to see if there are any changes in your ovaries. It is also vital that you consult your healthcare specialist if you notice any possible signs of this illness. Many of the symptoms of ovarian cancer closely resemble other medical conditions, making diagnosis of ovarian cancer difficult.

In the event you experience any of the associated symptoms and they are unusual for you, especially if they persist for more than a week, you must see your doctor without delay.

Some of the most common symptoms of ovarian cancer may include: Stomach discomfort of pain in the pelvic area, persistent nausea, feeling constantly bloated, unexplained weight gain, loss of appetite or unexplained weight loss, bowel changes, frequency or urgency in urination, lethargy, pain during intercourse and unexplained vaginal bleeding.

If your doctor is suspicious of ovarian cancer, he/she will refer you to an oncologist, specializing in gynecology, who will order tests some or all of the following: An internal pelvic examination, Blood tests, Chest and stomach x-rays, a barium enema to rule out bowel problems and Ultrasound scans.

If the test results indicate there is evidence of ovarian cancer, you will be advised to have surgery to confirm the diagnosis, since none of the above mentioned tests are 100 % accurate. If the surgeon finds ovarian cancer, he/she will normally remove the cancer and the ovaries and check to determine if the cancer has spread. Before the surgery, it is important that you understand what will be done, depending on the findings and to learn all you can about your illness and the anticipated results before the operation.

Breast Cancer Risk Factors

Anything that may increase the chance of developing a disease is considered a risk factor. As research has indicated women with certain risk factors are more likely than others to develop breast cancer.

The exact causes for breast cancer are not known. Often doctors cannot explain why one woman may develop breast cancer but another does not. What is known is that bruising, bumping or touching the breast does not cause cancer. Breast cancer is not contagious. It is not “caught” from others.

There have been studies that have revealed some of the risk factors for breast cancer. Among those risk factors are a woman’s age, a family or personal history of breast cancer, changes in her breast, changes in her genes and her menstrual history. Other risk factors for breast cancer include a woman’s race, if she has had radiation therapy to the chest, and her breast density. Still other factors for breast cancer include taking diethylstilbestrol (DES), her being overweight or obese after menopause, not being physically active, and her alcohol consumption.

Breast cancer is not common in women before menopause. As women age their chances for breast cancer development can increase. Breast cancer occurrence is greater for women over age 60.

The chance of a woman developing breast cancer is greater if her mother, sister or daughter has a history of the disease. If a family member developed breast cancer before the age of 40, the risk is even greater for a woman developing breast cancer. Other relatives having breast cancer, either on her maternal or paternal side of the family, can also place a woman at greater risk for developing breast cancer.

Having a personal history of breast cancer can also increase a woman’s risk. If a woman has had breast cancer in one breast the risk of getting breast cancer in the other breast increase.

Changes in a woman’s breast can place a woman at risk for breast cancer. Cells in a woman’s breast may look abnormal under a microscope. Abnormal cells such as atypical hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma in situ (or LCIS) increase a woman’s risk for breast cancer.

Changes in a woman’s genes including BRCA1, BRCA2, and others may increase the risk for breast cancer. Tests from family members who have been known to have breast cancer can reveal the presence of specific gene changes in family members. In order to improve the detection of this disease in women who have these changes in their genes health care providers may be able to suggest ways to try to reduce the risk of breast cancer.

A woman’s menstrual and reproductive history can place a woman at risk for breast cancer. Women having their first menstrual period before age 12 have a greater risk for developing breast cancer. The risk of breast cancer increase the older a woman is when she had her first child. A woman going through menopause after age 55 places her at greater risk for breast cancer. If a woman has never had children she is at a greater risk of breast cancer. Taking menopausal hormone therapy with estrogen plus progestin after menopause appears to increase risks for breast cancer. Studies have shown no link between miscarriage or abortion and risks for breast cancer.

Race is another risk factor for breast cancer. Caucasian women more often than Latina, African or Asian American women are diagnosed with breast cancer.

Radiation therapy performed to the chest, including the breast, before a woman is age 30 is another known risk factor for breast cancer. Studies indicate the younger the age of a woman when she received radiation treatment the higher the risk for breast cancer in later life.

A woman’s breast tissue is either fatty or dense. Placing them at a higher risk of breast cancer are older women whose mammograms, or breast x-rays, reveal more dense tissue.

Diethylstilbestrol, also known as DES, was given to some pregnant women in the United States during the 1940’s until 1971. This is no longer given to pregnant women. Taking DES during pregnancy may slightly increase the risk for breast cancer. The possible effects on the daughters of women who were given DES while pregnant are still being studied.

A woman being overweight or obese after menopause can increase a woman’s risk for developing breast cancer. Studies have indicated that after menopause the risk increases for women who are overweight.

A physically inactive lifestyle may contribute to risks for breast cancer. If a woman is active it can prevent weight gain and obesity and therefore reduce chances for breast cancer.

Drinking alcohol increases risks for breast cancer. Studies indicate the more alcohol a woman drinks her risk for breast cancer increase.

Researchers are currently studying other possible risk factors for breast cancer. Currently being studied are the effect of diet, genetics, physical activity, and certain environmental substances increasing the risks for breast cancer.

Avoiding known risk factors for breast cancer can help women protect themselves against breast cancer. Risk factors for breast cancer such as family history cannot be avoided. These should be discussed with her doctor.

Most women who have known risk factors do not get breast cancer. Many women with breast cancer do not have a family history of the disease. Most women with breast cancer have no clear sign for risk factors other than growing older.

If a woman thinks she is at risk for breast cancer she should discuss her concern with her doctor. Her doctor may be able to suggest ways she can reduce her risk. At risk or not, a woman should plan scheduled checkups with her health care provider. Prevention is the best cure.

The Cancer Research Industry

Many volunteers world-wide commit themselves to raising funds for cancer research and cancer charities. Many hundreds of thousands more work in the industry as carers, or researching, prescribing, diagnosing and manufacturing drugs. Huge companies spend fortunes on cancer research. After so long and so many billions spent what exactly has cancer research revealed?

There have been regular breakthroughs in our understanding of cancer, but little progress in its treatment. Modern research into cancer began in the 1940’s and 50’s when scientists isolated substances that killed cancer cells growing in a petri dish, or leukaemia cells in laboratory mice. Early successes in chemotherapy set the pace and received much media exposure, even though they only applied to 5% of cancer treatments at most.

Serving humanity by solving its major diseases has a celebrity status, there is a lot of kudos and an air of Hollywood involved in such things. Cancer research is high profile activity and every now and then a scientific treatment is discovered that gains wide recognition, such as the HPV-16 trial, but it only applies itself to the treatment of a small percentage of cancers. Mass-media hype is part of the problem of how we see cancer. Early discoveries set up an expectation that there was a cure-all treatment, a ‘magic bullet’ that would make its discoverer famous by curing cancer across the world. The idea stems in part from aspirin, the original bullet that magically finds its way to the pain and diminishes it.

In the 1950’s and 60’s huge and expensive research projects were set up to test every known substance to see if it effected cancer cells. You might remember the discovery of the Madagascar Periwinkle (Catharansus Roseus), which revealed alkaloids (vinblastine and vincristine) that are still used in chemotherapy today. Taxol, a treatment for ovarian and breast cancer originally came from the Pacific Yew tree. A treatment for testicular cancer and small-cell lung cancer called ‘Etoposide’ was derived from the May apple. In ‘Plants Used Against Cancer’ by Jonathan Hartwell over 3,000 plants are identified from medical and folklore sources for treating cancer, about half of which have been shown to have some effect on cancer cells in a test tube.

When these plants are made into synthetic drugs, single chemicals are isolated and the rest of the plant is usually thrown away. The medicinally active molecules are extracted from the plant and modified until they are chemically unique. Then the compound is patented, given a brand name and tested.

In the first phase it will generally be tested on animals, the second phase will decide dosage levels and in phase 3 it is tested on people. By the time it is approved by the Federal Drugs Authority (in U.S.A.) or the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulation Agency (M.H.R.A.) in Britain, the development costs for a new drug can reach five hundred million dollars, which eventually has to be recouped from the consumer.

In addition to ‘treatment directed’ research such as finding chemicals that effect cancer cells, basic research continues apace, into differences between normal and cancerous cells. In the last 30 years this research has revealed much about our nature, but still no cure. Below are some current strands of scientific research into cancer.

Antibody-guided therapy: this is the original ‘magic bullet’. Cancer researchers use monoclonal antibodies to carry poisons directly to the cancer cells without harming others.

Chronobiology: much of what happens in our bodies is governed by cycles, from the female monthly cycle to the cycles of brainwaves. Human health depends on interacting cycles geared to acts of perception, breathing, reproduction and renewal. Chronobiology analyses these cycles in relation to different times, such as day and night. Hormones, including stress and growth hormones, have their own cycles. For example they may be at their highest activity in the morning and quieter at night. Cancer cells seem to no longer obey the same cycle rates as normal cells.

Anti-telomerase: one part of a cell, called the telomerase, governs the life cycle of a cell and how many times it may multiply. Some cancer cells escape this control and can increase the number of times they divide, becoming ‘immortal’. Researchers hope to gain control over cancer cells by stopping the action of telomerase.

Anti-angiogenesis: secondary tumours (metastasis) can persuade the cells around them to grow new blood vessels to feed the tumours, supplying oxygen and nutrients for the growing cancer. This process is called angiogenesis and research here is finding ways to stop the signals to normal cells that start the process.

Anti-adhesion molecules: Cancer cells form into clumps, unlike those in a petri dish which form into a flatter arrangement. When there are clumps of cells they seem to possess a quality that resists treatment. This strand of research looks at ways that can stop the cells clumping together, by dissolving the clumps for more effective treatment.

Anti-oncogene products: specific portions of D.N.A., called oncogenes, that have an important role in promoting cancer growth. Drugs that interfere with the production of oncogenes may be useful for the future treatment of cancer.

Gene therapy: research into the use of tumour suppressant genes is highlighted in the British National Cancer Plan as an important element. Essentially, bits of DNA are inserted to replace missing or damaged genes, possibly preventing the development of cancer in someone who might be ‘high risk’.

Vaccines: very quietly the search for a general cure for cancer is being put aside in preference to finding a vaccine. The whole idea of a cure or treatment that is ‘the same for everybody’ breaks down in the case of the specific, chaotic conditions that cause cancer in an individual person. After billions spent on research for the holy grail of a cancer cure, the search is now on to find a vaccine.

At a recent cancer immunology conference in the US top immunologists from 21 nations attended lectures on the latest immunology topics such as:cancer immunosurveillance, immunoediting, cancer antigen discovery, monitoring and analysing the immunological response to human cancer, cancer vaccine development.

The Cancer Vaccine Collaborative (CVC) was launched to much excitement. It is a unique research program that should improve how cancer vaccines are developed, based on a collaboration of six New York medical centres and one in Minnesota. The aim of their research is to find out how to effectively immunise against cancer using a vaccine, using ‘action research’.

Vaccines made from donor blood are proving to work for some cancers. Experiments with bone marrow transplants show there are about 40,000 different tissue types making it hard to find a match. Usually a perfect match can only be found within the patient’s direct family. Incorrect matches can create a host of secondary dis-eases. Scientist are finding ways to train Killer T cells taken either from the host or a donor, to more effectively attack cancer cells. They have noticed that donor Killer T cells that are already ‘primed’ for a particular cancer (e.g. the donor body cells ‘remember’ the disease) can be highly effective. It may take many years to prove validity, reliability, safety and efficacy for this treatment. Harvesting the natural immunity of our own, or donor cells with the aid of genetic engineering may well become a big player against modern immune attacking dis-eases.

Increased screening: this type of research looks at genetically identifying individuals who might be at high risk of certain types of cancer and is partly a preparation for possible vaccines. Genetic counselling is set to become a 21st century contributor to health care based on prevention of disease as much as cure.

Combinations: research from West Germany (Grossart-Maticek) argues that there is no single cause for cancer, similar to the pattern in most chronic illness. It shows there are environmental, psychological and spiritual dimensions to disease. The implication is that treatment should be on the same levels, and that no single treatment is likely to be effective because there is no single cause. This observation links with the position of many Holistic practitioners who often have a wider view of health than orthodox medical practitioners.

Dr. Robert Buckman is an experienced cancer researcher, and author of the informative book: ‘What You Really Need to Know About Cancer’. He summarises what he sees as the present position of scientific cancer research:

“We now have a very large number of ways of looking at cancer cells in the laboratory. We have thousands of different types of cancer cells growing in dishes, many of which can be grown and then cured in laboratory bred mice. We also have thousands of different ways of looking at and testing those cells. We can look at the cells’ growth, their abilities to produce different substances, their sensitivity to some chemotherapy drugs and their resistance to others, the way they respond to growth factors, their genetic material including oncogenes and substances controlled by oncogenes, their ability to effect other cells (of the immune system, for example), their ability to damage membranes and invade, their structure under the electron microscope and whether or not the cell surface has any of hundreds of different marker molecules on it. These are just a few examples of what can be done nowadays: the complete list of ways in which cancer cells can be tested would probably be longer than this entire book. But here is the snag: although this accumulation of experience is wonderful and commendable, cancer in human beings is far more complicated then any laboratory system can ever be (at least in the light of current knowledge)”.

What You Should Know About Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women and the second leading cause of cancer death, exceeded only by lung cancer in 1985. One woman in eight who lives to age 85 will develop breast cancer at some time during her life.

At present there are over 2 million women living in the United States who have been treated for breast cancer. About 41,000 women will die from the disease. The chance of dying from breast cancer is about 1 in 33. However, the rate of death from breast cancer is going down. This decline is probably the result of early detection and improved treatment.

Breast cancer is not just a woman’s disease. The American Cancer Society estimates that 1600 men develop the disease yearly and about 400 may die from the disease.

Breast cancer risk is higher among those who have a mother, aunt, sister, or grandmother who had breast cancer before age 50. If only a mother or sister had breast cancer, your risk doubles. Having two first-degree relatives who were diagnosed increases your risk up to five times the average.

Although it is not known exactly what causes breast cancer; sometimes the culprit is a hereditary mutation in one of two genes, called BRCA1 and BRCA2. These genes normally protect against the disease by producing proteins that guard against abnormal cell growth, but for women with the mutation, the lifetime risk of developing breast cancer can increase up to 80 percent, compared with 13 percent among the general population. In effect, more than 25 percent of women with breast cancer have a family history of the disease.

For women without a family history of breast cancer, the risks are harder to identify. It is known that the hormone estrogen feeds many breast cancers, and several factors – diet, excess weight, and alcohol consumption – can raise the body’s estrogen levels.

Early Signs

Early signs of breast cancer include the following:

– A lump which is usually single, firm and most often painless is detected.

– An area of the skin on the breast or underarm is swollen and has an unusual appearance.

– Veins on the skin surface become more prominent on one breast.

– The affected breast nipple becomes inverted, develops a rash, changes in skin texture, or has a discharge other than breast milk.

– A depression is found in an area of the breast surface.

Types and Stages of Breast Cancer

There are many different varieties of breast cancer. Some are fast-growing and unpredictable, while others develop more slowly and steady. Some are stimulated by estrogen levels in the body; some result from mutation in one of the two previously mentioned genes – BRCA1 and BRCA2.

Ductal Carcinoma In-Situ (DCIS): Generally divided into comedo (blackhead), in which the cut surface of the tumor shows extrusion of dead and necrotic tumor cells similar to a blackhead, and non-comedo types. DCIS is early breast cancer that is confined to the inside of the ductal system. The distinction between comedo and non-comedo types is important, as comedocarcinoma in-situ generally behaves more aggressively and may show areas of micro-invasion through the ductal wall into surrounding tissue.

Infiltrating Ductal: This is the most common type of breast cancer, representing 78 percent of all malignancies. On mammography, these lesions can appear in two different shapes — stellate (star- like) or well circumscribed (rounded). The stellate lesions generally have a poorer prognosis.

Medullary Carcinoma: This malignancy comprises 15 percent of breast cancers. These lesions are generally well circumscribed and may be difficult to distinguish from fibroadenoma by mammography or sonography. With this type of breast cancer, prognostic indicators estrogen and progesterone receptor are negative 90 percent of the time. Medullary carcinoma usually has a better prognosis than other types of breast cancer.

Infiltrating Lobular: Representing 15 percent of breast cancers, these lesions generally appear in the upper outer quadrant of the breast as a subtle thickening and are difficult to diagnose by mammography. Infiltrating lobular can involve both breasts (bilateral). Microscopically, these tumors exhibit a linear array of cells and grow around the ducts and lobules.

Tubular Carcinoma: This is described as orderly or well-differentiated carcinoma of the breast. These lesions make up about 2 percent of breast cancers. They have a favorable prognosis with nearly a 95 percent 10-year survival rate.

Mucinous Carcinoma: Represents 1-2 percent of carcinoma of the breast and has a favorable prognosis. These lesions are usually well circumscribed (rounded).

Inflammatory Breast Cancer: This is a particularly aggressive type of breast cancer that is usually evidenced by changes in the skin of the breast including redness (erythema), thickening of the skin and prominence of the hair follicles resembling an orange peel. The diagnosis is made by a skin biopsy, which reveals tumors in the lymphatic and vascular channels about 50 percent of the time.

Stages of Breast Cancer

The most common type of breast cancer is ductal carcinoma. It begins in the lining of the ducts. Another type, called lobular carcinoma, arises in the lobules. When cancer is found, the pathologist can tell what kind of cancer it is – whether it began in a duct (ductal) or a lobule (lobular) and whether it has invaded nearby tissues in the breast (invasive).

When cancer is found, special lab tests of the tissue are usually done to learn more about the cancer. For example, hormone (estrogen and progesterone) receptor tests can help determine whether hormones help the cancer to grow. If test results show that hormones do affect the growth of the cancer (a positive test result), the cancer is likely to respond to hormonal therapy. This therapy deprives the cancer cells of estrogen.

Other tests are sometimes done to help predict whether the cancer is likely to progress. For example, x-rays and other lab tests are done. Sometimes a sample of breast tissue is checked for a gene, known as the human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2 gene) that is associated with a higher risk that the breast cancer will recur. Special exams of the bones, liver, or lungs are done because breast cancer may spread to these areas.

A woman’s treatment options depend on a number of factors. These factors include her age and menopausal status; her general health; the size and location of the tumor and the stage of the cancer; the results of lab tests; and the size of her breast. Certain features of the tumor cells, such as whether they depend on hormones to grow are also considered.

In most cases, the most important factor is the stage of the disease. The stage is based on the size of the tumor and whether the cancer has spread. The following are brief descriptions of the stages of breast cancer and the treatments most often used for each stage. Other treatments may sometimes be appropriate.

Stage 0

Stage 0 is sometimes called non-invasive carcinoma or carcinoma in situ. Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) refers to abnormal cells in the lining of a lobule. These abnormal cells seldom become invasive cancer. However, they are an indicator of an increased risk of developing breast cancer in both breasts. The treatment for LCIS is a drug called tamoxifen, which can reduce the risk of developing breast cancer. A person who is affected may choose not to have treatment, but to monitor the situation by having regular checkups. And occasionally, the decision is made to have surgery to remove both breasts to try to prevent cancer from developing. In most cases, removal of underarm lymph nodes is not necessary.

Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) refers to abnormal cells in the lining of a duct. DCIS is also called intraductal carcinoma. The abnormal cells have not spread beyond the duct to invade the surrounding breast tissue. However, women with DCIS are at an increased risk of getting invasive breast cancer. Some women with DCIS have breast-sparing surgery followed by radiation therapy. Alternatively, they may choose to have a mastectomy, with or without breast reconstruction (plastic surgery) to rebuild the breast. Underarm lymph nodes are not usually removed. Also, women with DCIS may want to talk with their doctor about tamoxifen to reduce the risk of developing invasive breast cancer.

Stage I and II

Stage I and stage II are early stages of breast cancer in which the cancer has spread beyond the lobe or duct and invaded nearby tissue.

Stage I means that the tumor is about one inch across and cancer cells have not spread beyond the breast.

Stage II means one of the following:

The tumor in the breast is less than 1 inch across and the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes under the arm.
The tumor is between 1 and 2 inches (with or without spread to the lymph nodes under the arm).
The tumor is larger than 2 inches but has not spread to the lymph nodes under the arm.
The treatment options for early stage breast cancer are breast-sparing surgery followed by radiation therapy to the breast, and mastectomy, with or without breast reconstruction to rebuild the breast. These approaches are equally effective in treating early stage breast cancer. (Sometimes radiation therapy is also given after mastectomy.)

The choice of breast-sparing surgery or mastectomy depends mostly on the size and location of the tumor, the size of the breast, certain features of the cancer, and how the person feels about preserving the breast. With either approach, lymph nodes under the arm usually are removed.

Chemotherapy and/or hormonal therapy after primary treatment with surgery or surgery and radiation therapy are recommended for stage I and most frequently with stage II breast cancer. This added treatment is called adjuvant therapy. Systemic therapy sometimes given to shrink the tumor before surgeries called neoadjuvant therapy. This is given to try to destroy any remaining cancer cells and prevent the cancer from recurring, or coming back, in the breast or elsewhere.

Stage III

Stage III is also called locally advanced cancer. In this stage, the tumor in the breast may exhibit the following:

More than 2 inches across and the cancer has spread to the underarm lymph nodes.
The cancer is extensive in the underarm lymph nodes.
The cancer is spreading to lymph nodes near the breastbone or to other tissues near the breast.

Inflammatory breast cancer is a type of locally advanced breast cancer. In this type of cancer, the breast looks red and swollen (or inflamed) because cancer cells block the lymph vessels in the skin of the breast.

Patients with stage III breast cancer usually have both local treatment to remove or destroy the cancer in the breast and systemic treatment to stop the disease from spreading. The local treatment may be surgery and/or radiation therapy to the breast and underarm. The systemic treatment may be chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, or both. Systemic therapy may be given before local therapy to shrink the tumor or afterward to prevent the disease from recurring in the breast or elsewhere.

Stage IV

Stage IV is metastatic cancer. The cancer has spread beyond the breast and underarm lymph nodes to other parts of the body.

The treatments for stage IV breast cancer are chemotherapy and/or hormonal therapy to destroy cancer cells and control the disease. Patients may have surgery or radiation therapy to control the cancer in the breast. Radiation may also be useful to control tumors in other parts of the body.

Recurrent Cancer

Recurrent cancer means the disease has returned in spite of the initial treatment. Even when a tumor in the breast seems to have been completely removed or destroyed, the disease sometimes returns because undetected cancer cells remained somewhere in the body after treatment.

Most recurrences appear within the first 2 or 3 years after treatment, but breast cancer can recur many years later.

Cancer that returns only in the area of the surgery is called a local recurrence. If the disease returns in another part of the body, the recurrence is called metastatic breast cancer. The patient may have one type of treatment or a combination of treatments for recurrent cancer.

For more information, see “Nine Ways to Reduce Breast Cancer Risk” on this site.

Sources: National Cancer Institute; Centers for Disease Control

Breast Cancer Screening and Medical Malpractice

Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in women. Every year, more than 40,000 women die in the U.S. from breast cancer. Early detection with routine breast cancer screening followed immediately with appropriate treatment could prevent many of these deaths. A doctor’s failure to recommend routine breast cancer screening to their female patients and to follow up on abnormal test results may constitute medical malpractice.

Screening for breast cancer

Cancer specialists generally recommend that a doctor should order a yearly mammogram and conduct a yearly clinical breast examination on all female patients age 40 or older, even if the patient has no family history of breast cancer and has no symptoms. A doctor should perform a breast examination every 3 years for female patients in their 20s and 30s. If a patient is at moderate (15%-20%) lifetime risk the doctor should discuss the option of adding a yearly MRI as part of the screening process. For patients at high (>20%) lifetime risk, the doctor should add a yearly MRI to the screening process. The lifetime risk is assessed based on such factors as family history, the presence of gene mutations, characteristics of the breast, and personal medical history.

The clinical breast examination determines whether there are any palpable lumps or other abnormality in the breast that could indicate the presence of cancer. The mammogram and MRI use imaging technology to identify changes or masses in the breast that may not detectable from a clinical breast examination. Should an abnormality be found, a biopsy (sampling of breast tissue) is then performed to rule out or confirm the presence of cancer.

The progression of the breast cancer is tracked through stages

Once breast cancer is diagnosed, the cancer’s progression is categorized using a five-level staging system:

  • Stage 0 (Also known as Carcinoma In Situ): There are 2 types – (1) Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) which is a noninvasive condition which involves the presence of abnormal cells confined to the lining of the breast duct, and (2) Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) which involves the presence of abnormal cells in the lobules of the breast.
  • Stage I: The tumor is less than 2 cm and has not spread outside the breast.
  • Stage IIA: Either (1) no tumor is found in the breast but cancer is found in at least one of the axillary lymph nodes (the lymph nodes under the arm), (2) the tumor is 2 cm or smaller and has spread to the axillary lymph nodes, or (3) the tumor is between 2 cm and 5 cm and has not spread to the axillary lymph nodes.
  • Stage IIB: Either (1) the tumor is between 2 cm and 5 cm and has spread to the axillary lymph nodes, or (2) the tumor is larger than 5 cm and has not spread to the axillary lymph nodes.
  • Stage IIIA:Either (1) no tumor is found in the breast but cancer is found in axillary lymph nodes that are attached to each other or to other structures, or cancer may be found in lymph nodes near the breastbone, (2) the tumor is 2 cm or smaller and the cancer has spread to axillary lymph nodes that are attached to each other or to other structures, or cancer may have spread to lymph nodes near the breastbone, (3) the tumor is larger than 2 centimeters but not larger than 5 centimeters and the cancer has spread to axillary lymph nodes that are attached to each other or to other structures, or the cancer may have spread to lymph nodes near the breastbone, or (4) the tumor is larger than 5 centimeters and the cancer has spread to axillary lymph nodes that may be attached to each other or to other structures, or cancer may have spread to lymph nodes near the breastbone.
  • Stage IIIB:The tumor may be any size and the cancer (1) has spread to the chest wall and/or the skin of the breast, or (2) may have spread to axillary lymph nodes that may be attached to each other or to other structures, or cancer may have spread to lymph nodes near the breastbone.
  • Stage IIIC:The cancer is operable if it is detected (1) in ten or more axillary lymph nodes, (2) is found in lymph nodes below the collarbone, or (3) is found in axillary lymph nodes and in lymph nodes near the breastbone. The cancer is inoperable if it has spread to the lymph nodes above the collarbone.
  • Stage IV: The cancer has spread to other organs in the body, usually the bones, lungs, liver, or brain.

Breast cancer treatment and prognosis

Cancer specialists associate a statistic called the 5 year survival rate with each stage of the cancer. This statistic reflects, for each stage, the percentage of women who will survive 5 years or more after a diagnosis with that particular stage.

For Stage 0, treatment options include a breast conserving surgery (lumpectomy or partial mastectomy) with sentinel lymph node biopsy or lymph node dissection and radiation therapy, mastectomy (for women at high risk a bilateral prophylactic mastectomy may be an option), and/or hormone therapy (such as Tamoxifen or an aromatase inhibitor). The 5-year survival rate is nearly 100% for Stage 0.

For Stage I, treatment options include a lumpectomy (breast conserving surgery) with sentinel lymph node biopsy or lymph node dissection and radiation, mastectomy, and chemotherapy and/or hormone therapy. The 5-year survival rate is also nearly 100% for Stage 1.

For Stage II, treatment options include breast conserving surgery (a lumpectomy or modified mastectomy) with sentinel lymph node biopsy or lymph node dissection and radiation, mastectomy, and chemotherapy and/or hormone therapy. The 5-year survival rate is 92% for Stage IIA and 81% for Stage IIB.

For Stage IIIA, the treatment options remain the same as for Stage II. The relative 5-year survival rate is 67% for Stage IIIA

For Stages IIIB and IIIC, treatment options vary depending on whether the cancer is operable. Chemotherapy is often the initial treatment in order to attempt to reduce the size of the tumor. If the tumor is operable, then treatment options may include breast conserving surgery (a lumpectomy or modified mastectomy) or mastectomy with sentinel lymph node biopsy or lymph node dissection, radiation, and chemotherapy and/or hormone therapy. If the cancer is inoperable, the 5-year survival rate is 54% for Stage IIIB.

For Stage IV, treatment normally consists of radiation therapy, hormone therapy and/or systemic chemotherapy, Tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy, radiation therapy, surgery and medications to relieve pain, and clinical trials. The 5-year survival rate drops to approximately 20%.

Failure to screen for breast cancer may constitute medical malpractice

Unfortunately, even though the statistics make it very clear that early detection through breast cancer screening saves lives, there are still doctors who fail to screen female patients for breast cancer. They fail to perform breast examinations and fail to order mammograms. And some doctors ignore abnormal breast examination results and even abnormal mammograms results. By the time the cancer is discovered – often because the patient sees a different doctor who finally conducts a clinical breast examination or orders a mammogram, or the patient starts to feel back pain or other symptoms – the breast cancer has already advanced to a Stage III or even a Stage IV. The prognosis is now much different for this woman than it would have been had the breast cancer been detected early through routine breast cancer screening. As a result of the failure on the part of the doctor to advise a female patient to undergo routine screening, or to follow up on an abnormal mammogram or MRI result, the breast cancer is now much more advanced and the woman has suffered a “loss of chance” of a better recovery. In other words, she now has a reduced chance of surviving the breast cancer.

Contact a Lawyer Today

If you or a family member suffered a delay in the diagnosis of breast cancer due to a doctor’s failure to recommend routine screening or to follow up on abnormal breast examination or mammogram results, you need to contact a lawyer immediately.

This article is for informational purposes only and is not intended to be legal or medical advice. You should not act, or refrain from acting, based upon any information at this web site without seeking professional legal counsel. A competent lawyer with experience in medical malpractice can assist you in determining whether you may have a claim for a delay in the diagnosis of breast cancer due to a failure on the part of the doctor to offer breast cancer screening. There is a time limit in cases like these so do not wait to call.

Are Microrganisms Causing Certain Forms Of Cancer?

There has been something leading me into the direction of researching information on a possible link between microorganisms (bacteria and viruses) and their role in causing certain forms of cancer. Based on recent evidence linking microorganisms to not only diseases but to the possible causative agent of several types of cancer, I feel this article is credible for shedding light on this theory. Cancer kills millions of people every year and we need to find out as much information about this health problem as possible.

Unfortunately, it is fair to say that most healthcare physicians are either unaware of cancer microorganism research, ignore the findings or are resistant to the research on it. When certain diseases were initially identified as having a microbe as its cause, cancer didn’t act like an infectious disease and therefore it was concluded that microbes weren’t the causative. There were a few scientists who later found pleomorphic(capable of assuming different shapes) bacteria; these bacteria were simply dismissed as contaminants or as microbes that had secondarily infected cancerous growths. Also, at this time there was no single or consistent type of microbe found and animals experimentally infected with cancer microbes did not develop cancer. Thus for decades before the rise of virology and molecular biology, and a time before the revelation of mycoplasma forms of bacteria, the medical society concluded that bacteria were not involved as a cause of cancer in any way. As a result, this conclusion has stained medical thought about cancer to this day.

It has taken the medical community many years to finally discover the fact that microbes could even cause disease. There was a 200 hundred-year period where physicians knew about microbes, but didn’t realize that they could actually cause disease. In essence for two centuries the dogma was that those tiny microbes could not possibly be a threat to a grown person. Within the medical community once something becomes a dogma, it is very difficult to change medical thinking. Infectious bacteria can usually be recognized in disease because they can be seen microscopically in tissue sections from disease states. On occasion special staining of tissue sections is necessary to make microbes more visible and more easily identifiable. As a side note, in cancerous tissue, the cancer microbe is most easily viewed with an acid-fast tissue stain.

In this era of modern technology and medical breakthroughs, one would think that it would be impossible for disease experts to overlook disease-causing bacteria. An incident took place among legionnaires in Philadelphia in July 1976. This incident was a new and deadly lung disease that struck two hundred twenty-two people in which thirty-four died. The cause of this lung disease remained a medical mystery for well over 5 months. Bacterial infection was ruled out when all tests were reported as negative. One astute microbiologist finally discovered bacteria. Joe McDade at the Leprosy Branch of the CDC, was able to detect unusual bacteria in guinea pigs experimentally infected with lung tissue from the dead legionnaires. A further modification of bacterial culture methods finally allowed the isolation of causative bacteria, now known as Legionella pneumophila.

Another example of dogma-defying research is provided by recent studies proving that ( Helicobacter pylori ) are a common cause of stomach ulcers, which can eventually lead to stomach cancer and lymphoma. Just a few years back, stomach ulcers were thought to be due to stress, lifestyle, or improper diet, and it was not uncommon to send ulcer patients to psychiatrists for analysis. For over a hundred years, physicians refused to believe that bacteria could cause ulcers because they thought bacteria couldn’t live in an acidic environment of the stomach. In the early eighties a researcher, who was unable to convince his colleagues that bacteria could cause ulcers and gastritis. He actually proved his case by drinking a culture of H. pylori. After he became ill and admitted himself to the hospital where these bacteria were found to be associated with gastric disease. These bacteria were found only with a special staining technique and they were indeed found in the stomach lining. The CDC now claims that H.pylori causes more than 90% of duodenal ulcers and 80% of gastric ulcers. As a result, around two-thirds of the world’s population is infected with these microbes. Upon further research gastric ulcers are the prerequisites to stomach cancers.

For some reason, the idea that a proposed cancer germ could have more than one form is a threat to doctors and some microbiologists. The cancer germ has been described as having a virus like and fungus like, as well as a mycoplasma like phase. Such a Life Cycle is deemed nonsense in a lot of the medical community. Several scientists studied the pleomorphic cancer microbe. The results of this research indicate that cancer microbes are best detected by special staining tissue testing. Microbiologists love to separate viruses, bacteria, mycoplasma, and fungi, as distinct entities. In fact there is interplay between all of them. Viruses can infect certain forms of bacteria, but scientists cannot understand how microbes can change into virus-like, mycoplasma-like and fungus like infectious agents. The cancer microbe is related to the bacteria that cause tuberculosis, it is helpful to compare the microbiology of cancer with what we know about the microbiology of mycobacteria and their production of various forms of clinical TB. Research has indicated that the same identical germs do not always cause TB.

As a result, there is no reason to expect all cancer-associated bacteria to be exactly the same germ. Furthermore, just as everyone who harbors H.pylori does not develop stomach ulcers, we should not expect all cancer microbes to produce cancer. Also it is not unreasonable to consider the fact that cancer microbes have the potential to produce disease states that are not considered cancer. Cancer microbes can be identified in various disease states. There are photomicrographs of cancer microbes in autoimmune diseases such as scleroderma, in AIDS related Kaposi’s sarcoma, in breast cancer, in lymphoma and Hodgkins disease, in a lung disease called interstitial pneumonitis, in sarcoidosis and even in skin cancer. Not everyone who becomes infected with TB germs develops clinical tuberculosis. Individuals can harbor the TB germ without ever becoming ill. The same is true for cancer microbes. Not everyone who carries these microbes develops cancer.

One researcher found the microbe to be ubliquitous, which means it is found various disease states and can also be found normally. The research also labeled the microbe a progenitor cryptocides, which means hidden killer. Most importantly, cancer microbes are significant because they can be identified in the cancerous tissue in various forms of cancer. Also a few of these microbes can be seen in normal tissue, but strikingly large numbers can be seen in the areas of the tumor. These same microbes can be found in pre-cancerous conditions, suggesting that these germs are present before the actual induction of cancer. Furthermore, when cancer is cured by radiation and chemotherapy, the microbe can still be found in the damaged, previously cancerous areas. One reason cancer cannot be cured is that we cannot stop the destruction caused by these hidden and unrecognized bacterial elements. The reason antibiotics don’t work well in cancer is because the microbes (in the mycoplasma state) aren’t susceptible to antibiotics.

For more information on cancer and other health related problems visit the website located in the resource box.

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